Yes, you read that right. Holes. Plural. Many people only know of the southern Antarctic ozone hole. But did you know there are actually 3, possibly more, ozone holes that develop seasonally across the planet?

Antarctic Ozone Hole

Alright, let's dive into the latest on the Southern ozone hole, and it's quite a story! Picture this: it's 2023, and our ozone hole is like that one friend who can't decide whether to stay in or go out. It's been quite a rollercoaster!

So, the polar vortex – that's the cold, swirling air up there in the stratosphere over Antarctica – started to get its act together in mid-May. It's like it was throwing a party and, by mid-September, it had grown to a pretty average size of 33 million square kilometers. But then, it got a bit wobbly and less stable, kind of like your friend after one too many.

Now, the ozone itself has been doing this dance where it dips low in some places and soars high in others. Inside the vortex, we've seen ozone levels drop to around 150 Dobson Units (DU), which is pretty low. But outside, over the Southern Ocean, it's been hitting highs of around 500 DU, especially south of New Zealand. It's like the ozone is playing a game of limbo under the vortex and then doing the high jump over the ocean.

Temperature-wise, the ozone layer's been pretty chilly, staying below the -78°C mark in most parts. That's cold enough to form Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs), which are like the VIP section where all the ozone-depleting reactions happen. But as we're moving away from the winter minimum, some parts are starting to warm up, which is good news because it means fewer PSCs and less ozone depletion.

The main ozone hole got going in late July and by mid-September, it had ballooned up to 25 million square kilometers, which is near the largest it's been over the last decade. But don't worry, it's started to shrink again and is now closer to the average size for the past ten years.

Now, here's where it gets interesting. The ozone hole did a bit of a stretch over South Georgia and even reached towards the tip of South America in early October. It's like it was trying to reach out and touch the continents!

But what's really got scientists scratching their heads is the early start to the ozone hole season this year. It's been linked to the Hunga Tonga eruption back in January 2022, which chucked a whole bunch of water vapor into the stratosphere. That extra moisture could be making it easier for those PSCs to form, which could mean more ozone depletion.

So, in a nutshell, the Southern ozone hole has been doing its usual seasonal thing but with a few extra twists this year. It's a bit like a soap opera up there – always something new to keep us on our toes!

And hey, speaking of keeping on your toes, have you ever felt like you needed a friendly chat but didn't want to go through the hassle of sign-ups and all that jazz? Well, have I got a tip for you!

Himalayan Ozone Hole

The development of the Himalayan ozone hole has been a subject of concern among scientists and environmentalists. The ozone layer, which protects the Earth from the harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays of the sun, has been depleting due to various anthropogenic activities. The release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other ozone-depleting substances (ODS) has been the primary cause of this depletion.

The Himalayan region, due to its high altitude, is particularly vulnerable to the effects of ozone depletion. The thinning of the ozone layer over this area has been linked to increased cases of skin cancer, cataracts, and other health issues among the populations living at high altitudes. Moreover, the environmental impacts are significant, with potential damage to plant life and ecosystems that are sensitive to UV radiation.

The discovery of the ozone hole over the Himalayas has prompted further research into the atmospheric conditions of the region. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has indicated that if the Montreal Protocol's regulations on ODS were observed, they could avert 132 million cases of skin cancer and 27 million deaths from skin cancer among people born before 2075. However, even with these controls, there are estimates of 7 million extra skin cancer cases among people born between now and 2075, with a higher number likely in higher altitudes.

The increased UV radiation also poses a threat to agriculture and biodiversity. Studies have shown that two-thirds of all plant life are affected by UV radiation. Scientists like Martyn Caldwell of the National Science Foundation in Washington DC have cautioned that while specific analysis on the impact of ozone depletion on high-altitude plant life is not comprehensive, there is a possibility that mountain crop production and quality could decline.

The next steps in scientific investigation, as agreed upon by experts, should be an in-depth worldwide examination of the ozone problem, focusing on specific regions by latitudes and altitudes. Nepali scientists and institutions like the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) have emphasized the urgency for serious research in the Himalayas, which they consider one of the best natural laboratories for atmospheric sciences.

The Arctic Ozone Hole

The annual development of the Arctic is a complex interplay of natural processes and human activities, which are increasingly influenced by the effects of climate change and geopolitical interests. The Arctic undergoes significant seasonal transformations each year, affecting its environment, wildlife, and the human communities that call it home.

Spring and Summer:

During the spring and summer months, the Arctic experiences a dramatic change as the extensive darkness of winter gives way to the Midnight Sun. The ice begins to melt, and vast areas of the ocean become navigable. This seasonal thawing allows for increased marine traffic and opens up opportunities for resource extraction such as oil, gas, and minerals, which are abundant in the region. However, this also poses risks to the fragile Arctic ecosystem and the traditional ways of life of Indigenous peoples.

The summer melt has been intensifying due to global warming, with the Arctic warming at more than twice the global average rate. This has led to record-low sea ice extents, which in turn affects wildlife patterns. Species such as polar bears, seals, and walruses depend on sea ice for hunting and breeding, and their habitats are being drastically altered.


As autumn approaches, the region begins to cool, and the sun dips below the horizon once more. The sea ice starts to reform, although the extent and thickness of new ice have been decreasing over the years. This season is also a critical time for Indigenous communities to harvest resources and prepare for the long winter ahead.


Winter in the Arctic is characterized by extreme cold and darkness, with the polar night enveloping the region in continuous twilight or darkness. Despite the harsh conditions, life persists, and the Arctic ecosystem is uniquely adapted to these conditions. For example, some species of whales migrate to the Arctic during this time to feed on the abundant krill and small fish.

Human activities do not cease during the winter; in fact, some oil and gas exploration activities are conducted on the ice itself. However, these activities are not without controversy, as they pose risks to the environment and the traditional lifestyles of the local populations.

Human Development and Governance:

The Arctic Council, an intergovernmental forum, plays a significant role in promoting cooperation, coordination, and interaction among the Arctic States, Indigenous communities, and other inhabitants on common Arctic issues. The annual development of the Arctic is a topic of significant interest within this forum, especially concerning sustainable development and environmental protection.

The Wilson Center's event on the Arctic, which includes the "Arctic 25 Years: First Annual International Youth Symposium," provides a platform for discussing the future of the Arctic, with a focus on sustainable development, Indigenous rights, and youth leadership. The symposium highlights the importance of cross-border collaboration, the need for sustainable economic development that respects the environment and Indigenous cultures, and the role of youth in shaping the future of the Arctic.

The discussions at such events underscore the need for a balance between development and conservation, emphasizing the right of Indigenous peoples to have a say in the projects that affect their lands and livelihoods. The symposium also addresses the challenges of navigating policy spaces and the importance of decolonization in political science, listening to Indigenous peoples, and respecting their way of living and thinking.

In conclusion, the annual development of the Arctic is a dynamic process that encompasses environmental changes, wildlife adaptations, and human activities, all of which are being reshaped by the realities of climate change and geopolitical interests. It is a region of great importance, not only for its natural resources and strategic position but also for its unique cultures and ecosystems that require careful stewardship to ensure their preservation for future generations.

Roger Sarkis